Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is extracted from plant tissue, mainly wood pulp and cotton, but because it is chemically modified, it cannot be classified as a natural food ingredient. CMC is soluble in cold water to give clear and colorless solutions with neutral flavor. Viscosity production is the primary property of CMC. Typically the dosage level of CMC used in food products is 0.1 – 0.3% w/w.
Dairy Products:In acidy milk drinks CMC prevents phase separation, protects milk protein and improves mouth feel.In cheese spreads it replaces fat and milk protein, improved yield and prevents syneresis. In preparation of yoghurt fruit it protects milk protein, prevents syneresis and controls viscosity.
Bakery Products:CMC improves freeze-thaw stability, controls staling and improves air cell structure and texture.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is used extensively in the food industry, not only for its nutritional value but for its many functional contributi ons to product quality. Vitamin C has a dual role: it acts as a nutrient as well as a food antioxidant and product improver. It is used as an antioxidant, reducing agent, acidifier, buffering agent, solvent, etc in various food and drinks. It is probably the most important chemical property of vitamin C which protects and improves qualities of fruits, vegetables, meats and poultry, fish and seafoods, milk, cereal grain flours, snack foods, fats, oil, juices and beverages, etc in either fresh, frozen or heat- treated forms.
Meat products:Ascorbic acid is widely used in the meat industry for its antioxidant properties. In cured meats, ascorbic acid can: (1) accelerate color development, (2) inhibit nitrosamine formation, (3) prevent oxidation, and (4) prevent color fading. Ascorbic acid is also used in fresh meat to prevent oxidation and color fading during storage. Ascorbic acid can prevent nitrosamine formation in cured meats by reducing nitrate to nitrogen oxide, which will not be able to react with the amines to form nitrosamines.
Bakery products:In dough systems adding ascorbic acid to the flour improves both bred texture and loaf volume. The ascorbic acid is first oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid. Then the reduction of dehydroascorbic acid back to ascorbic acid drives the reaction of sulfhydryl compounds in the gluten to form intermolecular disulfide bonds.
Oils and Fats:The unsaturated long-chain fatty acids present in fats and oils readily oxidize when exposed to heat, light, and air. As in meats, lower molecular weight compounds are formed and impart rancid odors and flavors. Because ascorbic acid is a water soluble compound, it can control these reactions only to a certain extent. The antioxidant effects of ascorbic acid are more apparent in an oil system if ascorbic acid is used in combination with other antioxidants such as tocopherols, BHT, and BHA.
Beverages: Ascorbic acid addition is common in the manufacture of beverages, especially those made from fruit juices. In the manufacture of fruit juices or purees from fruits such as apples and peaches, ascorbic acid may be added during the crushing, straining, or pressing processes to prevent enzymatic browning of the raw fruits. Browning takes place when enzymes called polyphenolases, which occur naturally in fruit tissue. Ascorbic acid can inhibit browning reactions by reducing the quinones back to the original phenol compounds. Also, because polyphenolases are most active in a pH range between 6.0 and 7.0, combinations of ascorbic acid and citric or malic acids are sometimes used to diminish enzyme activity by lowering the pH of the juice or fruit puree. Heat treatment or pasteurization during processing will also inactivate the enzymes and prevent any further enzymatic browning in the final juice products.Ascorbic acid
Dextrose is a reducing sugar.The dextrose equivalent (DE) of pure dextrose is defined as 100. Expressed as a percentage of the reducing value of pure dextrose and calculated on a dry weight basis, the total reducing value of a starch hydrolysate is referred to as its DE.With its pleasant, clean and sweet, cooling taste, dextrose has been used for years as a sweetener in a wide range of food applications. Dextrose is one of the sweetest of the starch derived sugars. On a scale on which sucrose is assigned sweetness value of 100, dextrose is rated at 75. Its sweetness is influenced by a variety of factors such as temperature, acidity, salts, flavoring materials, sweetener concentration and the nature of other sugars present. Contrary to sucrose, dextrose is not subject to the process known as inversion, and therefore its degree of sweetness does not change.
Bakery Products:It is used in fermented products, biscuits, cookies, cakes, icing and glazes.
Dairy Products:Dextrose is used in frozen desserts, desserts, fermented desserts, milk drinks, creams and fillings.
Beverages: It is used in soft drinks, energy drinks, beverage powders.
·Also it can be used in meat products, snacks and cereals and convenience foods.
Calcium propionate (along with propionic acid and sodium propionate) is used as a preservative in bread and other baked goods. It also occurs naturally in butter and some types of cheese.
It keeps bread and baked goods from spoiling by preventing mold and bacterial growth. You may be concerned about the idea of preservative use in food, but on the flip-side, you certainly don't want to eat bacteria- or mold-infested bread.
Function: Calcium propionate is also known as calcium proanoate. Calcium propionate inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi and thus helps to increase the shelf life of foods. It is predominantly used in bread but can be found in other baked goods, processed meat and cultured whey as well as milk derivatives. Calcium propionate is formulated synthetically and is also found naturally in some cheeses and butter. As a preservative, in prevents microbes from producing the energy that they need to survive, thus inhibiting the growth of mold. Calcium propionate does not require an acidic environment to be effective. It is most effective against the Bacillus mesentericus mold strain.
As a food additive, Calcium propanoate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. In agriculture, it is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement Propanoates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. However, unlike benzoates, propanoates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propanoate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to 1%). Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth.
GLYCEROL MONO STEARATE (GMS) is a well known emulsifying agent which is extensively used by the modern food stuff industries. It contains both water and oil soluble groups in one molecule which enables it to be a very effective emulsifier. GMS is of high nutritive value, non toxic and therefore very suitable for use in food formulations. It belongs to the class of non-ionic emulsifiers.
Functions: GMS finds application in the following areas:
• In baking cakes and other baked products
• In the production of high quality biscuits as an emulsifier because it can help in reducing the consumption of egg yolks or fat used in making biscuits.
• It is used to heighten the impression of creaminess on the ice cream palates. The GMS also helps to prevent fat separation in frozen hard ice creams and in frozen soft ice creams to retain the very fine air particles with a high over run.
• GMS is used in confectionery to ensure smooth dispersion of flavour oils, to improve texture and showing quality.
• It is a very useful softening agent for chewing gums. It reduces the viscosity of the blend to a desirable consistency and improves texture.
• In margarines’, GMS provides a smooth mouth feel and improves spreading properties. It ensures the fat and water emulsion remains stable and it functions as an anti spattering agent during frying operation.
• GMS improves on the cutting, handling and wrapping operations and gives a better appearance to baker’s yeast.
• In pea nuts butter, GMS is added to crystallize part of the free oil during processing and prevent the oil and peanut fibres from separating during storage